The Yoruba know as much as everybody else that most good things carry the germ of their own destruction. When someone does things that tend to diminish or detract from a path of goodness to one of potential evil they wonder and ask: Efun abi edi? I cannot find an immediate equivalent in the English Language because the deep meaning has a basis in Yoruba esoteric belief. The Yoruba believe in supernatural power of both kinds - the positive and the negative. They believe that some malevolents can by some magical powers cast spells on people and make them misbehave.
When, therefore, people behave in a way contrary to expectation, they Yoruba believe a spell has been cast on him and to show their indignation, they ask: Efun abi edi? I was accosted some many months ago in Abuja by an influential Northerner who said he respected this column but was scandalised that I did not condemn the existence of the OPC.
Infact, he noted that no notable Yoruba leader had condemned the OPC. I did not condemn the OPC then; and I will not condemn it now. I did not then because the Yoruba had long ago settled the question of a mad house: Tori were ita, ni a fi ng ni were ile. You keep a mad man in the house because of the mad man without. This is not to say that members of the OPC are mad men. I am saying that the manner of the environment dictates that a body of deterrents be accumulated to protect a cause.
The OPC is a reaction of some perceived inequities; a situation has to be forced so that an atmosphere will be forged to create a necessary condition for dialogue. That atmosphere has given birth to Egbesu; to Bakassi Boys and their like. It is not a desirable condition but it is one that has to happen where men in the position to change matters round pretend that nothing is happening.
If people have had reservations about these bodies not known to the law, it is because they are aware of the nuclear power potential embedded in their philosophy of existence. To make it worse, they grew out of frustration; out of deprivation so much so that they have become mass movements aware of their immense power for good or ill And when you have such mass movements you have among their ranks the flotsam and the jetsam of society.
Among them will be people imbued with the highest of ideals; among them nihilists simpliciter. A younger cousin of mine was summoned from his work last Tuesday: people were making bonfire of some properties and causing harm to themselves somewhere in Mushin where he has an inherited property.
He told me practically a whole street was razed. At a political party congress ward election in Abeokuta a faction of the same party AD used members of the OPC against another faction. My Administration Manager here came on Monday before the last to report an ordeal by a cousin of his: a disclaimed landlord had enlisted the help of the OPC to compel payment of rent to it despite the fact that the tenant had been paying his rent to the court on the instruction of the absentee bona-fide landlord.
There was the saga of the man who was supposed to have turned two kids into dogs. In an atmosphere of fear any story would make an impression.The Yoruba people are one of the three major ethnic groups in Nigeria. They are predominantly scholars, farmers and traders. The women are very creative when it comes to style, beauty, fashion and hair.
Their history and folklore influence their traditional and even modern designs, which are generally grouped by styling method. The two basic methods are handmade plaited hair irun didiand hair that is tied with thread or braided irun kiko.
Every Yoruba hairstyle has a significant name that celebrates an occasion, historical event or aesthetic design. Some signify social status, marriage, sophistication, youth or grieving, while others can represent social commentary. The shuku a. There are many variations of this popular style.
This simple style is sometimes complemented with side plaiting. This hairstyle was traditionally reserved for the wives of royalty, but is now common among young ladies, school girls and married women. The simplicity of it makes it less time-consuming and easier to execute than other more intricate designs.
Different types of suku are suku elegbesuku na poisuku onididi and suku sesema. Others are sinero kikosuku fulasuku ologede and twin suku.
Some ceremonial suku have plaited braids that cascade down on all sides and are attached to the hump. Modern types of suku involve intricate plaiting to form flowers.
The Eko bridge hairstyle represents a bridge in Lagos, Nigeria. The stylist divides the hair into 10 or 11 sections. The thin braids are then twisted to form a bridge-like focal point above the head. The hair is made to look like a road roundabout.
The stylist divides the natural hair from the center of the head into small triangular sections, leaving the hair untouched at the back.
They then plait with plastic plaiting threads from the middle of each triangle.
List of health deities
Thereafter, the long strands are intricately woven into a circular design. This hairstyle is to commemorate the building of the national theatre in Lagos, Nigeria. It features a depression in the center, resembling the monument. Ogun pari literarily means 'end of the war'. The hairstyle was created to commemorate the end of the Nigerian Civil War. The natural hair is divided into large sections and plastic plaiting thread is used to make long, thin braids.Turning Point - Latest Yoruba Movie 2019 Romance Yewande Adekoya - Wumi Toriola - Baba Suwe
The braids are then bent into large arches, connecting the thin tops to the bottom of adjacent braids. The Ere hairstyle identifies worshipers of the deity Esu. Esu is believed to protect travelers and have powers over fortunes and misfortunes.
The style involves a single, long growth of hair at the front or center of the head. The single strand resembles a pigtail, which has religious significance in that faith.
This male hairstyle identifies members of the Aragberi clan.To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Samuel Ayodele. As a result, this has significant implications for health-seeking behaviour.
The study, carried out in a Yoruba community, obtained ethnographic data through in-depth interview and non- participatory observation methods. The Yoruba worldview influences perceptions of health and illness and the prevention and cure of ill-health. While good health signifies a positive destiny ayanmo rereill health is considered to be a negative destiny ayanmo buruku.
Pathways to prevention and cure usually favour the patronage of the traditional healing process, while hospital care is sought only when all other attempts have failed. Hence, the mortality rate is generally still high. The people occupy the south western part of the country, stretching from the upland area to the hinterland of the Lagoon.
They speak the Yoruba language. The people are traditionally farmers, most of whom now engage in white-collar jobs and trading activities. Like other African societies, the people were once predominantly traditional worshippers who worshipped various gods and deities.
They held a worldview containing a supreme being known as Olodumare God. As descendants of a common ancestor Oduduwathey shared a common worldview. Like other African societies, the following five categories of religious practices can be observed, as Mbiti has recorded: 1. God as the ultimate explanation of the genesis and sustenance of man and all Things; 2. Spirits, made up of superhuman beings and spirits of ancestors; 3.
Man, including human beings alive and those not yet born; 4. Animals and plants or the remainders of biological life; and 5. Phenomena and objects without biological life. In addition to these five categories, there is a vital force, a power or energy permeating the whole universe. God is the source and the ultimate controller of the vital forces, but the deities are the intermediaries between man and God.
A few human beings are endowed with the knowledge and ability to tap, manipulate and use the vital forces, such as medicine men, witches, priests and rainmakers.You are on: Egofelix Magazine - Yoruba names for herbs and plants — Nigerian medicine. The orishas, or gods of the Yoruba, were former ancestors such as Oduduwa, the legendary ancestor of all Yoruba people, and his son Ogun. Respect for family and ancestors is so deep that when Yoruba people die, they are buried under the floor of the family house.
Their spirits remain with and protect the family. The Yoruba believe that sickness is a whim or punishment of a specific god or ancestor, who must be identified and placated, or else is caused by witchcraft for which the appropriate countercharm must be employed. They developed a shamanistic medical tradition utilizing both herbalism practiced by the onishegun, herbal healers and divination practiced by the balabwo, priests of the Ifa cult. The balabwo uses both psychotherapeutic techniques in discussing the illness with the patient, also casts an oracle reading using the Ifa system revealed to the Yoruba by the trickster god Eshu Elegba.
The oracular reading involves throwing a handful of 16 kola nuts from the right to the left hand, 16 times, after which the right hand is checked to see whether an odd or even number of kola nuts remains. The outcome of each set of 4 throws is marked in a sandtray with a single or double line. At the end of this process, the pattern left in the sand tray corresponds to one of the verses of the Odu, which the balabwo interprets for the patient.
Relevant information might include strained relations with family or neighbors who might have deliberately or unwittingly put a curse on the patient. The psychotherapeutic consultation with the balabwo is one part of the overall treatment. It has the effect of calming the patient and engendering a more positive frame of mind.
The balabwo recommended that the patient take specific steps to cure the illness. By sacrificing to a particular god or ancestor, or procuring a specific charm to protect against a malicious spell. The balabwo also send the patient to the onishegun to purchase herbal remedies.
In treating diseases caused by angry gods, sacrifices may be made to the god in question, but special care must be taken not to make other gods jealous in the process. For example, it is often important to make an extra sacrifice to Eshu Elegba when sacrificing to another god, in recognition of the fact that Eshu Elegba is the messenger and mediator between the Yoruba and the gods, and also to prevent him from becoming jealous which would create further problems for the patient.
The advice of the balabwo is essential to ensure that the correct procedures are followed. The important text of Yoruba medicine is the Odu, a collection of verses which is the oracle consulted for diagnosis and treatment by the Ifa priests. The Odu was revealed to the Yoruba people by the god Eshu Elegba. It should be noted that the Santeria tradition, which was brought to the Americas by African slaves, is descended from the Yoruba teachings.
Just want to thank you for this wonderful information about Yoruba medicine and Some herbs in yoruba language. Nnchanwu is igbo as well as dongoyaro ,I commend ur effort just thought u should know that yoruba borrowed some words from other tribe but its not part of our native language. Thank you for the intrest in my tribe. I thank you. I think there should be much more available because so many people are searching for this information.
Somebody who knows all these should make a website only about yoruba medicine, it would be a success. Hello Jorjette C, your answers are highly invaluable. I noticed however that twice the name of Bay leaf in Yoruba was asked but you dud not respond. Please how is Bay leaf called in Yoruba? Thanks for a good work thus far.
Your rich, enlightened and wonderful information on Yoruba herbs is highly applauded. Copious thanks and more power to your elbow. But, i need help! Please, what is the native name for tea tree in Yoruba?
Thanking you ii anticipation! Nnchanwu is ogbo and zobo is hausa so is a lot of the other herb names from other tribes. Gathering all the plant local names you know and calling them yoruba is just lazy on your part.It started from a religious text, called Ifa Corpus.
The last years saw individuals in the Caribbean and South America practice the Yorubic healing system as a token of their past when the first wave of Stolen Africans arrived in the Americas.
For the Yoruba, however, these insects and worms perform useful functions in the healthy body, aiding digestionfertilityetc. However, if they become too powerful in the body, they must be controlled, killed or driven out with bitter -tasting plants contained in medicines. Rather, in a similar manner to mainstream European medicine, it strives to destroy the agents that cause disease.
The household is understood in a similar way. As agents of disease overflow their bag, menstrual blood the female body, and palm oil the cooking pot, so women in the marital household tend to overflow and return to their natal homes. Medicinal incantations are in some ways like the praise songs addressed to human beings or gods: their purpose is to awaken the power of the ingredients hidden in the medicine.
Most medicinal incantations use a form of word-play, similar to punningto evoke the properties of the plants implied by the name of the plant. Some early writers believed that the Yoruba people are actually an East African tribe who moved from the Nile River to the Niger area. For example, Dr.
Jonathan Olumide Lucas claims that "the Yoruba, during antiquity, lived in ancient Egypt before migrating to the Atlantic coast. Amulets and charms were more common than pills as preventions or curatives of diseases.
Priestswho were from the earliest days the forefathers of science and medicine, considered diseases as possession by evil demons and could be treated using incantations along with extracts from the roots of certain plants. The psychosomatic method of healing disorders used primarily by psychiatrists today is based loosely on this ancient custom. They believe he also advised his people on spiritual baths, inner reflection, and herbal medicine in particular.
The Ifa Corpus is considered to be the foundation of the traditionalist herbology. He goes on to say that the orthodox methodology for the treatment of diseases is based on what he called "the contrary principle,". This type of practise is concerned with the elimination of symptoms.
However, according to Makinde :. The treatment of a disease is the application of what such disease is forbidden to come in contact with, at whose sight must simply disappear. Homeopathic medicine is said to be more concerned with identifying the causes of the illness and disease in an effort to restore holistic balance in the biological system.
While the claim that allopathic approaches, of which orthodox medicine is a form, is only occupied with getting rid of the symptoms rather than concerned with identifying and removing the causes of illness is not entirely true e.
Modern orthodox medicine has a place for this concept whereby all aspects of the patients needs, psychological, physical and social, and mentally are said to be taken into account and seen as a whole. Yorubic medicine has come to be widely known in Nigeria as the ultimate traditional medical practice due to its holistic approacrch to treatment.
For instance, the medical practitioner would be interested in the spiritual causes of the illness. To do this, there is the need for the understanding of the constitution of man. For him, a person has two parts which he describes as "the body" and "the soul". These can include natural diet and herbal remedies, nutritional supplements, exercise, relaxation, psycho-spiritual counseling, meditation, breathing exercises, and other self-regulatory practices.
It addresses not only symptoms, but the entire person, and his or her current life predicament, including family, job, and religious life.Image Source. Yoruba is a West African spirituality that some Anthropologists estimate is 10, years old! It comprises the beliefs of the Yoruba people, whose homeland is in the South Western part of Nigeria and adjoining parts of Benin and Togo. Yet the beliefs of Yoruba are also incredibly widespread around the world.
Some of this was due to migration that occurred before the Egyptian dynasties. Today, many people of African descent are returning to their roots via exploration with the Yoruba spirituality. There is a great article on this very phenomenon on NPR. It lives in a heavenly realm, far from its creation. Yet it has holy messengers who help to intercede between the Almighty and Mankind itself. There are many types of Orishas.
Some who have always been present and others are humans who made the leap to divinity.
And then there are spirits who take the form of natural resources such as rivers and trees. While some are similar to the Western concept of an Angel, there are also some key differences. They actually have very human characteristics, a variety of quirks and different attitudes.
They marry, divorce and even have their own favorite beers and foods. Orishas also live on the Earth, rather than the sky. Some say that there are and others say that there are more than 3, Of the real number no one can be certain. Each Orisha has their own color, drum beat and even an article of clothing that is associated with them.
Orishas are also capable of possessing the bodies of their followers or priests. This is done through an elaborate dance ritual where certain orishas are evoked through a particular dance and drum beat. The Orishas rise up from the Earth and mount the bodies and souls of those involved in the ritual. Men and women can both take place in these rituals. Some humans involved in the ritual even gender bend in terms of their clothing, if they want to summon an Orisha of the opposite gender.
However, not all spirits are good. Ashe is a life force similar to Chi in Chinese traditions or the energy that flows through the chakras in Indian belief. Ashe is a force that has the power to bring about change — whether good or bad — and is contained in everything from lightning and hurricanes to blood and sacred names Source: God Paths. Rather than focusing on salvation, much of the focus has been on living a good life in the here and now.
People who are bad or who commit suicide do not get to be reborn.
Mothers' management of childhood diseases in Yorubaland: the influence of cultural beliefs.
There is also a belief that reincarnation matches family lines. Therefore, that a grandmother or grandfather will reincarnated back into his or her family tree. Gender is hardly ever taken into account because its believed that it often changes with reincarnation. In Yoruba, we get to choose our own destinies before we are born.
This can be to the very exact details of where we live, who we love and our life purpose. Yet once we are born, we forget these destinies and must struggle to remember them again.Several studies have noted that, besides inadequate availability of health care services in many areas, especially the less developed countries, certain disease-specific and non-disease-specific cultural beliefs may influence people's health seeking behaviour.
It has even been noted that health services may be underutilized and several health and child care instructions may be ineffective or ignored in traditional and transitional societies where people's ideas and behavioural patterns conflict with the knowledge being passed to them Feyisetan and Adeokun ; Feyisetan Feyisetan and Adeokun argued that non-adoption of modern preventive and curative measures cannot be attributed to poverty alone since the costs of some preventive and curative measures are not exorbitant in several of these societies.
Rather, they suggested that the gap between awareness of modern health measures and health seeking behaviour must be sought in the social and cultural determinants of behaviour in such matters as child care and disease management. Earlier studies have noted that children in Nigeria die mainly from malaria, diarrhoea, measles, neonatal tetanus, whooping cough, tuberculosis, and bronchopneumonia Morley and MacWilliam ; Ogunlesi ; Morley, Woodland and Martin; Baxter-Grillo and Leshi ; Animashaun ; Tomkins Because these diseases are preventable at low cost to the individual, there is a need to investigate why large percentages of children are still subjected to many episodes of these diseases.
In this paper, we examine 1 the mothers' perceptions of the aetiology of the three most cited childhood diseases in our study areas, measles, diarrhoea and fever, and the effect of these perceptions on the mothers' suggested curative measures; and 2 the persistence of the belief in abiku and how this cultural belief can influence mothers' management of childhood diseases. Since, for most mothers, perceptions of the aetiology of the childhood diseases are rooted in cultural beliefs, a brief review of disease-specific cultural beliefs is undertaken.
In order to determine the effect of socio-economic factors, the mothers' perceptions of the aetiology of the childhood diseases, their recommended curative measures and the belief in abiku are examined according to selected socio-economic variables.
The data for this study, collected via formal interviews with respondents supplemented by in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, were submitted to simple cross tabulation and logistic regression analysis. It was found that 1 many of the mothers lack accurate information about the causes of the selected childhood diseases, especially measles; 2 many of the mothers nevertheless recommended modern curative methods; 3 the belief in abiku remains strong among these mothers; and 4 the curative measures adopted by a mother may depend upon whether the sick child is believed to an abiku.
Over half of the mothers believed that an abiku required treatment from traditional healers and religious institutions irrespective of the nature of the illness.
Thus, the probability of a child receiving modern curative treatment depends upon whether or not that child is perceived to be abiku. This study underscores the need to consider local beliefs and practices when implementing health policies.